Regional Tool Kit: Transportation

Corridor Preservation Planning

(NPS.gov, usf.edu)

Definition: A process by which municipalities can develop a plan for managing and preserving transportation corridors within their jurisdiction, including addressing and coordinating right-of-way preservation for future transportation facilities and/or preservation of scenic, environmental or heritage corridors.

Benefits

•    Promotes orderly and predictable development with respect to transportation and land development patterns providing infrastructure and desired level of transportation services as needed
•    Creates a process for managing and planning for multi-modal transportation opportunities
•    Reduces future right-of-way costs to governing municipality
•    Reduces the adverse impacts of re-location for future facility expansion
•    Creates private sector benefits
•    Allows scenic, historic, environmental and heritage corridors to be preserved

Examples

Cultural Heritage and Corridor Site Case Studies. National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2011:
http://www.preservationnation.org/issues/heritage-tourism/survival-toolkit/  
US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. “Transportation Corridor Preservation: A Survey of Current Practice by Local Government Planning Departments (May 2000): http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/realestate/cp_local.htm#corridor

 

Bus Service Improvements and Bus Rapid Transit

Definition: Developing a bus service improvement program, municipalities can increase accessibility, reliability, and amenities for citizens that take public transportation. These improvements could include bus stop location improvements, including bus stop consolidation, which may result in the elimination or relocation of some bus stops, traffic signal upgrades, transit signal priority and designated queue jump lanes, curb extensions and signage improvements, accessibility enhancements and amenities including improved bus stops/waiting areas. Additionally, a Bus Rapid Transit line may be implemented to provide more efficient, fewer stop lines on top of the existing routes. These lines can also shape future growth patterns. The need for Bus Rapid Transit and general public transit is generally based the current scale and density of a given community.

Benefits

•    Create a more integrated and accessible system with respect to existing and future land use development and transportation trends
•    Increased ridership
•    Public service amenity for tourists and citizens
•    Reduction in auto-dependency
•    Connectivity between jobs and houses

Examples

“Creative Planning Helped to Avoid Transit Cuts.” Urban Milwaukee, November 2011:  http://www.planetizen.com/node/52226
“Accessibility, Mobility and Automobile Dependency.” Litman, Todd (Planetizen, 2010): http://www.planetizen.com/node/42731
Case Study: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Bus Service Improvement Program, 2011:
http://www.mbta.com/about_the_mbta/t_projects/default.asp?id=19047
City of Greenville, SC Transit Master Plan, July, 2010:
http://www.greenvillesc.gov/RideGreenlink/forms/MasterPlan/Greenville_Transit_Vision_Final_7-19-10.pdf

                        Lexington, KY                                            Greenville, SC

Bicycle Support Facilities

Definition: When considering transportation patterns and uses in a city, municipalities can develop plans for bicycle related transportation and support related infrastructure including bike racks, changing facilities, bike lanes (corridor expressly reserved for bikes) bike paths (separated designated right-of-way), bike route (use corridor shared with pedestrian and/or cars), and bikeways (road or path specifically designated for bike use regardless if shared with other transportation modes) (K&L, 2007).

Benefits

•    Offers bike parking and storage
•    Reduces dependency on the automobile
•    Creates alternative transportation modes and routes
•    Provides greenway and active lifestyle facilities
•    Improves air and water quality

Examples

Eugene, OR 2009 Bicycle Strategy and Plan:
http://www.planning.org/awards/2009/pdf/eugenebikeplan.pdf
Chattanooga, TN Bicycle Master Plan, 2007:
http://www.chattbike.com/bikechat/masterplan.htm
“Share-A-Bike.” Stephens, Josh (APA, May 2008):
http://www.planning.org/planning/2008/may/shareabike.htm

 

Shared Parking Strategy

Definition: Joint utilization of a parking area for more than one use. Usually involves parking spaces that are used at different times by different uses. Shared parking serves several businesses so that cars need not be moved from place to place. A classic example is using a movie theatre parking lot during off-peak hours use for other businesses. Shared parking strategies between businesses and municipalities provide an alternative to large surface parking lots and garages through coordination and planning.

Benefits

•    Reduces the total number of spaces needed for a particular development or in a downtown area
•    Creates more efficient coordination of resources to avoid overuse of land for parking
•    Reduces parking surface

Examples

South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Shared Parking Model Ordinance:
http://www.scdhec.gov/environment/baq/docs/ModelOrdinances/SharedParkingModelOrdinance.pdf
Alexandria, VA Shared Parking Fact Sheet, 2002:
http://alexandriava.gov/uploadedFiles/planning/info/SharedParkingFactSheet.pdf
“Shared Parking Facilities Among Multiple Users,” Victoria Transport Policy Institute Online Traffic Demand Management Encyclopedia:
http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm89.htm

 

Traffic Calming

Definition: The use of traffic management measures, including changes in existing street alignment, installation of barriers and diversions and other physical measures to reduce traffic speeds and/or volumes in the interest of street safety and neighborhood amenity (K&L, 2007).  These can include cul-de-sacs, one way streets, diagonal diverters, median barriers, speed humps, speed tables, raised crosswalks/intersections, traffic circles, and textured pavement.

Benefits

•    Forces traffic to slow down for safety
•    Can create aesthetic amenities (texture pavement, bump-outs and landscaping)

Examples/Resources

“Complete Streets: From Conception to Adoption.” Koch, Lisa and Joe Rexwinkle:
http://www.planning.org/chapters/kansas/conference/2011/pdf/completestreets.pdf
“Traffic Calming: Making Streets Safer.” Smith, Robin:
http://www.streetfilms.org/mba-traffic-calming/
“Calming Rural Roads.” Langdon, Phillip (APA, May 2003):
http://www.planning.org/planning/2003/may/calming.htm
Traffic calming techniques:
http://trafficcalming.org/
City of Austin, TX: Neighborhood Traffic Calming Program and Toolkit:
http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/roadworks/toolbox.htm


       

Streetscape Improvements

Definition: Streetscape is a design term referring to all the elements that constitute the physical makeup of a street and that, as a group, define its character, including building frontage, street paving, street furniture and landscaping including trees, plants, rain gardens; awning and marquee character, signs and lighting (K&L, 2007).

Benefits

•    Provides for a clearly defined pedestrian area
•    Improves street aesthetics and inviting urban or neighborhood environment for walking, sitting, and shopping
•    Can be part of an economic development and revitalization strategy for downtown areas
•    Can provide environmental benefits  such as increased number of trees, rain gardens, and alternative storm water management techniques

Examples

“Complete Streets: From Conception to Adoption.” Koch, Lisa and Joe Rexwinkle:
http://www.planning.org/chapters/kansas/conference/2011/pdf/completestreets.pdf
San Francisco, CA: Better Streets Plan, 2007:
http://www.sf-planning.org/ftp/BetterStreets/docs/Draft_BSP_7_Implementation.pdf
“Rethinking the Street Space: Why Street Design Matters.” Hawkes, Amber & Georgia Sheridan
(Planetizen, July 2009): http://www.planetizen.com/node/39815



Public Education for Alternative Modes of Transportation

(Envision Central Texas)

Definition: Public education complements transportation plan strategies by creating a climate that fosters public acceptance and awareness of alternative transportation modes. Public education campaigns coordinated by a variety of entities, both public and private, are ongoing in most major cities in the U.S. As examples, there are modes of information dissemination such as bike maps and bus schedules; marketing/campaign through the use of mass media; and designation of Bike-to-Work Week, Ozone Action Day, Relax Statewide Transportation Choices campaign, Oil Smart campaign, Rideshare Week, One Less Car campaign, Walk to School days; and others. (WSDOT, 2000)

Benefits

•    Allows for public input regarding alternative transportation plans
•    Improves participation in existing and future alternative transportation projects
•    Creates a healthier and more active community
•    Reduces dependency on automobile

Examples

City of Austin, TX: Regional and City Ozone and Alternative Transportation Education Program:
http://www.cityofaustin.org/airquality/o3red.htm
City of Greenville, SC: Greenways and Trails Benefits Fact Sheet:
http://www.greenvillesc.gov/ParksRec/Trails/GreenwayBenefits.aspx

Worksite Based Commuting Plans

Definition: Proximate commuting is an employment-based commute reduction strategy that offers multi-site employers (e.g., banks, retail, post offices, government agencies, manufacturers, etc.) a program for minimizing inefficient long distance commuting. Employees of multi-site employers often live closer to several other work sites of the same employer than the site where they work. Through proximate commuting programs, employee commute patterns are assessed and commuters who could potentially work closer to their homes are identified and voluntary transfers to alternate shorter-commute sites are facilitated (Envision Central Texas, Office of Urban Mobility).

Examples

Thurston County, WA Worksite Based Commuting Program: http://www.ctr.wa.gov/docs/JointCompCTRPlan.pdf

Transportation and Growth Management Joint Programs

Definition: A transportation and growth management (TGM) program is the joint program/consortium between a state department of transportation and a state agency of land use development and growth management. The TGM program provides non-regulatory technical assistance and grants funding to local communities, including grants to local governments, quick response teams, smart development code assistance and education outreach (Oregon DOT).

Examples

Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program- Policies and Plans: http://www.oregon.gov/LCD/TGM/policies.shtml
“Coordinating Transportation and Growth Management Planning: Implementation Guide.” Olympia, Washington, 1998:
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/043A2A9F-8BB3-43B5-8679-65526C95DB17/0/CoordinatingTransportationandGrowthMngPlanning.pdf